Desertification and wind erosion in the western Sahel the example of Mauritania by Nicholas J. Middleton

Cover of: Desertification and wind erosion in the western Sahel | Nicholas J. Middleton

Published by University of Oxford School of Geography in Oxford .

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Subjects:

  • Desertification.,
  • Wind erosion.,
  • Sahel.

Edition Notes

Book details

StatementNicholas J. Middleton.
SeriesResearch papers / University of Oxford School of geography -- no.40
The Physical Object
Pagination26p. :
Number of Pages26
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL13840754M

Download Desertification and wind erosion in the western Sahel

Wind erosion is regarded as a major contributor to the desertification process in the Sahel, yet little quantitative information is available for that region on soil losses by wind erosion under. Desertification is a complex environmental issue involving many inter-related contributing factors and processes.

Wind erosion is an important contributing factor to the desertification process in. Biophysical Causes of Desertification: Wind Biophysical factors, such as wind also play a role in soil erosion and land degradation through dust storms.

In the Sahel, powerful wind storms can sweep. The Sahel region along the southern border of the Sahara desert was once the home of vast trading empires. Although drought and famine were unavoidable components of life in this harsh region, the people were relatively prosperous and developed agricultural and livestock practices that allowed local populations to endure and recover from the extremes of nature (Office of Technology.

Wind erosion was not as severe in the "Filthy Fifties" due to the use of irrigation and better management practices. However, wind erosion like this is currently a problem in Western China, and in the Sahel and Sahara regions of Africa.

Link to story about April China dust storm: Water erosion simulation (erosion. Case in point – the Sahel. It is damaged every day by the advancing Sahara desert; desertification began when human activity became too intense for the ecosystem.

In the same way, inappropriate agricultural techniques and bad land management can lead to desert expansion – the Sahara desert moves at 6 km per year.

Sahel, semiarid region of western and north-central Africa extending from Senegal eastward to Sudan. It forms a transitional zone between the arid Sahara (desert) to the north and the belt of humid savannas to the south.

Learn more about the Sahel here. The drying of the Sahel in the late 20th century caused widespread famine that attracted world-wide attention, including the United Nations Conference on Desertification (UNCOD) in Nairobi, Desertification and wind erosion in the western Sahel book inthe Convention to Combat Desertification, the International Year of the Desert and Desertification, and the Millennium Ecosystem.

Wind erosion can create a faceted rock known as a _____ as shown in the figure below. a)ventifact The desertification of the Sahel region in Africa was the result of a)overcrowding by nomadic people Chapter 14 Earth Science.

48 terms. dannybalentine. Geology Chapter 44 terms. angie_herrera9. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Middleton, Nick. Desertification and wind erosion in the Western Sahel. [Oxford]: School of Geography, University of Oxford, Since the late s, West-Africa is affected by the most severe and prolonged drought of the 20th century.

In addition intensified anthropogenic environmental degradation processes are progressively leading to a widespread desertification of the study area. This paper presents and discusses the evolution of dusty events and deflation events variability since Cited by: 7. The word Sahel is an Arabic word for "border" and comprises the zone between the true desert of the Sahara to the north and the wetter tropical area to the south.

Desertification is both an anthropogenic and natural process that leads to nutrient depletion and reduction of productivity of soils. Wind erosion in deserts A. Goudie GOUDIE, A. Wind erosion in deserts. Proc. Geol. Ass., (1), Wind is an important erosive force in deserts, and in recent years there has been a re-appraisal of its power, notably with respect to the development of yardangs, inverted relief, desert depressions and dust by: 8.

Desertification in the Sahel: a reinterpretation. LARS HEIN. Bergametti, C. Bouet, K.J.M. Ambouta and Z. Garba, Dynamics of wind erosion and impact of vegetation cover and land use in the Sahel: A case study A climate model-based review of drought in the Sahel: Desertification, the re-greening and climate change, Global.

Land degradation and desertification conistitute one of the most serious environmental problems facing the world today.

Desertification threatens the drylands of Sub-Saharan Africa more than any other region in the world. Once the vegetational cover is removed, the fragile soils are exposed to winds and battering rains.

Erosion is inevitable. The vegetation protects the environment so little wind or water erosion occurs. A UNEP publication confirms that the natural green belt extends across the Sahel.

It exists because it is closer to the desert than the agricultural zone and therefore too dry for sustainable millet production. It is estimated that around 90 percent of the country has been touched by issues of desertification and drought There are several indicators that represent the extend of loss of productive land, including: loss of 31, hectors of woodland per year due to overgrazing and harvesting firewood, water and wind erosion ( tones per square.

Soil degradation decreases the productivity of soil which is a serious threat to food security in the Sahel. Lal writes that it is hard to determine exactly how much soil erosion inpacts soil productivity but estimates that productivity lost due to past erosion is about % and predicts that if the current rate of degradation is continued losses in the 21 st century will be approximately.

Desertification In The Sahel Introduction You read in the chapter on Land Degradation that: Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas.

It is caused primarily by human activities and climatic variations. Desertification does not refer to the expansion of existing deserts.

It occurs because dryland. Today, there is nothing left to hinder soil erosion after the fertile top soil has been blown away by the wind. The sand fills the dry river beds and suffocates the water-wells and millet fields. Desertification and Wind Erosion in the Western Sahel: the Example of Mauritania (Research Pap Oxford: School of Geography University of Oxford, ) Extremes Along the Silk Road: Adventures off the World's Oldest Superhighway (London: John Murray, ; London: John Murray, ).

Which of the following is an example of wind erosion. a large boulder sitting on the side of a dry streambed b. large piles of sand that move across the desert floor c. a fan-shaped pile of sediment at the mouth of a canyon d. deeply eroded arroyos that cover the desert floor.

Herrero S.T. () DESERTIFICATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY. THE CASE OF CONFLICTS BETWEEN FARMERS AND HERDERS IN THE ARID ENVIRONMENTS OF THE SAHEL. In: Kepner W.G., Rubio J.L., Mouat D.A., Pedrazzini F. (eds) Desertification in the Mediterranean Region.

A Security Issue. NATO Security Through Science Series, vol 3. Springer, DordrechtCited by: 7. Figure 3 shows that the region of southern Mali with the highest temporal trend, corresponds well to the region of maximum desertification due to wind erosion on human‐induced degraded soils [United Nations Environment Programme, ].

This part of Mali, centered on the Niger loop and located between 13°N and 15°N and between 3°W and 10 Cited by:   “The opening chapters of this book examine something that never occurred but was widely believed to have existed – the late 20th century desertification crisis in the Sahel,” begins the : John Magrath.

Increased population and livestock pressure on marginal lands are accelerating desertification in the semiarid Sahel region of western Africa, which has also endured extensive and severe droughts. The conference "Combating Desertification with Plants" was held in Beer Sheva, Israel, from November, and was attended by 70 participants from 30 countries and/or international organisations.

Desertification - the degradation of soils in drylands - is a phenomenon occurring in scores of countries around the globe. The number of people (in semiarid regions) affected by the steady.

Desertification is a type of land degradation in drylands in which biological productivity is lost due to natural processes or induced by human activities whereby fertile areas become increasingly more arid.

It is the spread of arid areas caused by a variety of factors, such as through climate change (particularly the current global warming) and through the overexploitation of soil through. The recent assessment of desertification and drought by the United Nations Statistical Office (UNSO) shows that the main threats to sustainability in the Sudano-Sahel zone are low and erratic rainfall, coupled with soil erosion by wind, water and the drying up of surface water resources and the depletion of ancient groundwater and salinization.

gcse geography theme 2 > case study 9: desertification case study - sahel > flashcards flashcards in case study 9: desertification case study - sahel deck (12) 1 location this causes the soil to become bare and vulnerable to rain and wind erosion.

7 solutions afforestaton (establishment of. Desertification - Desertification - Rain-fed croplands: Drylands also support rain-fed crops. Before cultivation, such areas were often vast grasslands. They now cover about 5 million square km (about 2 million square miles) and account for roughly one-third of all croplands worldwide.

They receive less than 60 cm (about 24 inches) of rain each year, and thus they are at the margin of what. Location Desertification in Sahel Sahel is the zone in Africa that connects the Sahara Desert in the North to the Savanna in the South.

This strip of land includes the countries Sudan, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Mali and Mauritania. Saving the Soil The main factors. The analysis of soil degradation, by types, in areas of the world affected by desertification shows that the major soil degradation process in the drylands is wind erosion ( m.

ha.), followed by water erosion ( million hectares), then chemical ( million hectares) and physical ( million hectares) degradation (see Table 6 in.

Desertification of dryland ecosystems is worsened by deforestation because the reduction in tree cover exposes the ground to wind and water erosion (Anjum et al., ). This process removes soil fertility, alters the water cycle and prevents vegetation regrowth, making life more difficult for the two billion people who depend on dryland Cited by: 4.

Box Droughts in the Sahel Region: Lessons Learned and Knowledge Gaps. The Sahel region in Africa has been hit by a series of droughts and subsequent famines in the s and s (C5 BoxC).These droughts are natural phenomena in the Sahel, and the consequent land degradation in the Sahel has further reduced regional rainfall (C).

In some areas, nomads moving to less arid areas disrupt the local ecosystem and increase the rate of erosion of the land. Nomads are trying to escape the desert, but because of their land-use practices, they are bringing the desert with them.

It is a misconception that droughts cause desertification. Droughts are common in arid and semiarid lands. The Sahel is a particularly drought-prone area, and this increases the process of desertification, meaning the way a desert grows.

Between andAfrica was hit by a particularly bad. Wind erosion on dry-farmed lands is the second most extensive desertification process. The ravages of the drought-inspired Dust Bowl of the s were but an extreme example of the damage wind erosion has caused in the western Great Plains, the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere.

COVID Resources. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel).Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this ’s WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle coronavirus.

Sahel in (Nicholson et al. ), the recent U.N. Conference on Desertification (Puigdefabregas ), papers challenging the concept, and the improved monitoring capability afforded by remote sensing, re-visiting the issue of desertification in the Sahel is File Size: KB.

How Soil Erosion Contributes to Desertification and Dust Storms Disappearance of topsoil causes desert expansion and crop reduction in regions across the world. By Lester R. Brown. The Sahara Desert is the largest source of mineral dust in the world ons of African dust increased sharply in the early s (ref.

2), a change that has been attributed mainly to drought Cited by: Desertification is the result of a combination of factors, including soil erosion, deforestation, overgrazing, and periodic droughts.

The Sahel, the area bellow the Sarah that is turning into dessert, has been experiencing a prolonged drought (lower than normal rainfall) for about forty years. many environmental processes create feed back loops.

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